Egyptian coup brings West $138bn in deals
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2015-06-07 03:39:00 UTC
Article says: Western companies have inked a number of massive trade deals with Egypt since the country's first democratically-elected President Mohamed Morsi was overthrown and Egyptian President el-Sisi came to power in 2013.

May be Mohamed Morsi was "democratically elected." But his purpose in his entire life has never "democratic".

Look at the "democratically-elected President Mohamed Morsi's" purpose in his entire life in the next posting.



06 June 2015

Egyptian coup brings West $138bn in deals

Silence on Egypt's of deals signed by Western companies has reached $138 billion since the ousting of Mohamed Morsi in mid-2013

World Bulletin / News Desk

Western companies have inked a number of massive trade deals with Egypt since the country's first democratically-elected President Mohamed Morsi was overthrown and Egyptian President el-Sisi came to power in 2013.

While the rest of the world still awaits a "response" to the ousting of Morsi in mid-2013 by the Egyptian army, which was headed at the time by el-Sisi, the volume of deals, mostly signed by Western companies, reached $138 billion.

The U.K. has increased its trade volume with Egypt by 30 percent in 2014 compared to a year earlier. The country's representatives paid a visit in last March to Egypt with a delegation from giants like BP, BG and Vodafone, led by the country's Foreign Secretary Philip Hammond.

British oil giant BP signed an oil and gas production deal with el-Sisi this year which amounted to $12 billion. According to the deal, the company will explore and produce oil and gas in the Eastern Nile and in the Suez Canal.

World-renowned German energy company, Siemens, is another company that managed to ink a lucrative deal with el-Sisi. The company announced in 2014 that it will construct 12 wind farms and three gas plants, worth around $8.9 billion.

After the signing ceremony of the deal, Germany's Chancellor Angela Merkel voiced her criticism of Egypt's use of the death penalty and its record on religious freedom. However, she also pledged closer economic ties with Egypt.

Eni, another European company, announced in late March that it will invest $5 billion in Egypt in order to produce 200 million barrels of oil and 33 billion cubic meters of gas in the next four years.

"Egypt's challenge is our challenge, Egypt's journey is our journey and Egypt's stability is our stability," Italian Prime Minister, Matteo Renzi, said after the signing ceremony of the deal. In return, el-Sisi thanked Renzi for Italy's "active role" in Egypt's development.

While U.S. President Barrack Obama said in April that he will continue to request an annual $1.3 billion in military assistance to Egypt, Russia and Egypt had signed a memorandum of understanding to build a nuclear reactor for power generation in Egypt's northwestern Al-Dabaa region.

Morsi was ousted by a coup led by current President Abdel Fattah Sisi in July 2013.

Since then, the military-backed authorities have launched a massive crackdown on Morsi supporters, with scores of defendants handed long-term prison sentences or the death penalty.

The atmosphere of oppression in the country is helping Daesh and similar extremist movements gain a foothold in the region. A petition last week by a group of about 50 scholars, activists and advocacy groups in the U.S. called on international organizations, such as the UN and the EU as well as countries like the U.S., to defend human rights in Egypt.
2015-06-07 03:40:44 UTC
May be Mohamed Morsi was "democratically elected." But his purpose in his entire life has never "democratic".

Look at the "democratically-elected President Mohamed Morsi's" purpose in his entire life.



Muslim Brotherhood

Type of Organization: Islamist transnational political organization

Place of Origin: Egypt

Year of Origin: 1928

Founder(s): Hassan al-Banna

Places of Operation: Middle East, North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, Western and Central Europe, United States, Canada, and Australia



The (Moslem) Brotherhood seeks to gain power in order to implement rule according to Islamic law (shari'ah), both in individual countries and eventually through a global Islamic state (caliphate). Because the Brotherhood's past violent efforts to seize power in Egypt and Syria provoked ruthless suppression from the regimes of those countries, the Brotherhood has in recent years reduced its militant actions and focused on seeking power through political, social, and cultural activity. However, the group continues to support violence against Israel, and many of its leading members have also supported the use of force against the United States, including in Iraq. Reports also indicate that the Brotherhood may continue to train its members in combat techniques.[1]

The Brotherhood believes Islam is a complete guide to Muslims for how they should live their lives, including political governance. The late Mohammad Ma'mun El-Hudaibi, former general guide of the Brotherhood, expounded upon the group's ideology in an article published in the spring of 1997. El-Hudaibi stated that historically, the Quran and the sunnah (the teachings and practices of the Muslim prophet Muhammad, according to Islamic tradition), "have become the sole reference point for everything relating to the ordering of the life of the Muslim family, individual, and community as well as the Muslim State... The Islamic creed and Shari`ah have ruled over the individual and society, the ruler and the ruled. They have had supreme authority and neither a ruler nor a ruled people could change anything they contained."[2] Islamic teachings would govern daily life via their interpretation in and application to individual cases by judges, with no need for a state's rulers to impose "general laws."[3]

In the Brotherhood's worldview, this idyllic, holistic, Islam-centered system was shattered by Western, Christian imperialism and occupation, such as Britain's rule over Egypt in the 19th and early 20th centuries. While Muslim peoples eventually freed themselves from Western rule, the damage was done from the absence of complete Islamic governance. "They came out of the age of imperialism with a weak social structure and a ruined economic system in which poverty, ignorance, disease, and backwardness prevailed. Consequently, the system of government became corrupt and weak. Tyrants seemed to be supported by forces of imperialism which withdrew their armies but retained their influence in various means."[4]

Accordingly, El-Hudaibi explained, in order to repair society after its purported deterioration due to the replacement of Islamic rule with Western imperialism, "[F]orces soon appeared among them that strove to awaken the spirit of faith and remove ideas and opinions which emerged during the ages of decadence and imperialism... Movements of Islamic revival became active to spread the correct Islamic ideas and to demand the application of the rulings of the Islamic Shari`ah..."[5] Among these movements were the Muslim Brotherhood. Since, according to the Brotherhood, the lack of holistic Islamic governance is the problem, the Brotherhood's longstanding slogan has been that "Islam is the solution."[6]

The Brotherhood's two pillars (articulated by former general guide El-Hudaibi and published on the group's website) are "The introduction of the Islamic Shari`ah as the basis controlling the affairs of state and society" and "Work to achieve unification among the Islamic countries and states, mainly among the Arab states, and liberating them from foreign imperialism."[7] The Brotherhood seeks to re-establish Islamic governance from the bottom up by building a "popular base that believes in the Islamic system and is aware of its main ideas."[8] The Brotherhood has built this popular base through grassroots efforts including not only political organizing and religious indoctrination but also, most notably in Egypt, provision of health care, education, and other social welfare goods and services that governments often fail to deliver satisfactorily. In Egypt and elsewhere, the Brotherhood has used this popular base to obtain increased political representation and power through democratic processes, even though its ultimate political goals are undemocratic, since it wishes for Islamic law to supersede democratic policy-making.

While the Brotherhood is currently again being ruthlessly suppressed in Egypt, it has long exercised strategic patience and those who attempted to eliminate it. As the American Foreign Policy Council's World Almanac of Islamism writes, "In the past, the Brotherhood has survived under hostile regimes, and it has potential to expand its influence in the uncertain political terrain that has ensued since the Arab Spring. The Brotherhood may have a chance to be the forefront of a new government in Syria if the opposition proves capable of unseating Bashar al Assad. Meanwhile, its more moderate regional affiliates continue to rack up political successes throughout the Middle East and North Africa."[9]


An "international organization" governs the Brotherhood at the global level, but little is known publicly about its operations. Scholars differ as to the extent of the influence wielded by the international organization over Brotherhood branches in individual countries.[22] Newspaper reports indicate that the international organization is led by the Egyptian general guide aided by an international Shura council dominated by Egyptian members.[23] Former Brotherhood Deputy General Guide Mohamed Habib told Egyptian newspaper Al-Ahrar in 2008 that Brotherhood entities exist throughout the globe, share "the same ideology, principle, and objectives," with but operate through "decentralization in action" on most issues in order to respond to the unique challenges and contexts that each entity confronts.[24]

Sources of financial support:

The government of Saudi Arabia supported the Brotherhood for decades, but stopped funding the group after the Brotherhood supported Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein when he invaded Kuwait in 1990.[25]

Violent History

As noted in the chronology, the Brotherhood or Brotherhood affiliates and offshoots have in the past engaged in violence against the ruling governments in Egypt, Syria, and Israel. Brotherhood-affiliated militias continue to engage in violence against the Syrian regime, and Hamas, which emerged from the Brotherhood's chapter in Gaza, continues to support and engage in violence against Israeli civilians in pursuit of the destruction of the State of Israel.

Key Leaders

Yusef al-Qaradawi
Intellectual leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, chairman of the International Union of Muslim Scholars

Mohammed Badie
Most recent official General Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood's Egyptian chapter

Mohammed Morsi
Former President of Egypt; former member of the Guidance Bureau; former president of the Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party (FJP); former FJP candidate for President of Egypt ; member of the Muslim Brotherhood; educator

Mahmoud Ezzat
Current acting (temporary) General Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood's Egyptian chapter

Khairat al-Shater
Deputy General Guide, Egyptian chapter[15]

Gehad al-Haddad
Spokesman, Egyptian chapter[16]

Mohamed Mehdi Akef
Former General Guide[17]

Mohammad Riad al-Shaqfeh
Secretary General, Syrian chapter[18]

Mohammad Farouk Tayfour
Deputy Secretary General, Syrian chapter[19]

Mohammad Hatem al-Tabshi
Head of Shura Council, Syrian chapter[20]

Ali Sadreddine al-Bayanouni
Former secretary general, Syrian chapter[21]